Search database of illicit enrichment and related legislation in 103 jurisdictions

This database of illicit enrichment legislation and other relevant legislation accompanies the book Illicit Enrichment by Andrew Dornbierer, published by the Basel Institute on Governance in March 2021 and available as a printed book and e-book and on this website. It contains details of illicit enrichment laws and other relevant legislation from countries around the world, where data on these are available.

Download a PDF copy of the laws here. Please note that the PDF was last updated on 31 March 2021. If you would like to suggest corrections or additions, please contact


Unofficial Translation (Ministry of Justice/Justice Sector Support Program/LCB - Translation of Penal Code Presidential Decree endorsed by President Ashraf Ghani on March 4, 2017 [Published OG # 1260 May 15, 2017] - translated on 2017 09 27)

Article 419 Illicit Enrichment of Assets

(1) When assets of a public official or his/her spouse and children significantly increase in proportion to his/her registered assets and lawful income and he or she cannot reasonably explain the reason and due source of the increase, the official shall be guilty of illicit enrichment and punished according to provisions of this chapter.

(2) Significant increase of assets according to paragraph (1) of this article occurs when the value of registered assets increases by an amount greater than 500,000 AFN during one year.

Article 420 Punishment of Illicit Enrichment

(1) The perpetrator of illicit increase of assets stated in paragraph (2) of article (419) shall, be punished as follows:

  1. In case of increase of assets up to 10 million AFN, to short imprisonment.
  2. In case of increase of assets more than 10 million to 100 million AFN to medium imprisonment.
  3. In case of increase of assets to more than 100 million AFN, to long imprisonment.

Type: Criminal Illicit Enrichment Laws

Last update on LEARN: Wednesday, 24 February 2021, 2:55 PM